Complete Psychology


Section 6 Personality and intelligence

Chapter 26 Psychology of emotion
The main function of this chapter is to describe what emotions are, what their function is and how they are researched. This chapter will outline the contribution of both physiology and cognition to emotional experience and describe the debate that discusses the importance of these two factors. The chapter also describes how emotions are measured and uses examples such as lie detection, ADHD in children and temperature and violence to demonstrate the applied nature of emotional research.

Chapter 27 Motivation
This chapter will deal with motivation and the 'whys' of behaviour. We will consider the major theories of motivation in attempting to evaluate what motivates us. The chapter is divided into three sections. The first considers biology as a motivational force. The second evaluates the role of cognition and our mental processes in deciding what does and what does not motivate us. Lastly, we consider other motivational forces such as sexual motivation, sensation seeking and the need for achievement. We will also look at hunger and thirst as forms of motivation. The chapter will also differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.

Chapter 28 The psychology of the self
This chapter is divided into several sections. It begins with a section on what we understand by the concept of self, its function and how it develops. We will then focus on how we gather and organise information about ourselves from both our own behaviour and how we are treated by others around us. We will also describe some of the strategies that we deploy as defence mechanisms when the concept of our identity comes under threat. We will then consider how the social groups to which we belong and how the role of culture also play a vital part in the understanding of who we are. Lastly, we will discuss what happens when we lose our way and become confused about who we are and what we represent.

Chapter 29 Personality
This chapter discusses the psychological factors that contribute to our personalities.  We will consider several important questions about the nature and development of your personality characteristics in relation to the main theoretical paradigms in this field. Consideration will be given to environmental, cognitive and biological factors that contribute to the shaping of our personalities. We will also investigate personality in terms of gender difference, stability over the lifespan and the influence of motivational forces on it.

Chapter 30 Intelligence
This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part deals with the history of intelligence research and the issue of defining it as a psychological concept. The second part considers whether intelligence is a single ability or is made up of smaller, more specific intellectual skills. Finally, we will discuss the influence of heredity and biological factors on intelligence. Throughout this chapter we will aim to evaluate the main theories of intelligence and their contribution to our understanding of human intellect. We will consider how social influences might impact on intellectual development and review the research on racial and gender aspects of intelligence.

Chapter 31 Psychometric testing
This chapter is divided into three sections. The first is a section on the different types of psychometric test. Attention will be give to the different types of intelligence and personality test. The second section covers the main underlying principles of psychometric tests and considers such things as standardisation, reliability and validity. The focus of the final section is on the limitations and criticisms of the construction and use of psychometric tests. This chapter aims to describe the main types of psychometric test and the principles that guide them. It also seeks to show examples of how these tests have been employed within the various disciplines of psychology.